Abbreviations Used in All the Recipes and Useful Substitutions

 1 tsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar + 1/4 tsp. cornstarch  1 tsp. baking powder = 1/3 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar  1 cup butter = 1 cup shortening + 1/2 tsp. salt  1 tbsp. oil = 1 tbsp. melted shortening (or lard)  1 cup corn syrup = 1 cup honey = 1 cup sugar + 1/2 cup of the liquid used in the recipe  1 cup buttermilk = 1 cup milk + 1 tbsp. vinegar (or lemon juice)  1 cup nonfat milk = 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk + 1 cup water  1 cup whole milk = 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk + 1 cup water + 2 tbsp. melted butter  1 cup whole milk = 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup water  1 cup sugar = 1 cup corn syrup (decrease recipe liquid by 1/4 cup)  1 cup sugar = 1 cup honey (decrease recipe liquid by 1/4 cup)  1 oz. unsweetened chocolate = 3 tbsp. cocoa + 1 tbsp. shortening

Recipe for Baking Powder

1 tsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar + 1/4 tsp. cornstarch  1 tsp. baking powder = 1/3 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar (no cornstarch)  When the cream of tartar is combined with the baking soda a chemical reaction takes place and the shelf life of the resulting baking powder is only a few months. Therefore it is best to make just enough baking powder when you need it so that it will always be fresh and very active.

Baking Soda and Baking Powder

Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. Baking powder is baking soda plus cream of tartar plus a starch (such as corn starch).  If you need to, you may use baking powder in place of baking soda in a recipe but you can NOT use baking soda in place of baking powder in a recipe.

Homemade Pectin

10 or 12 green, hard, sour apples (not yet ripe)  Do NOT use ripe apples. Do not peel the apples. Cut the apples into quarters. Do not remove the seeds. Place in a large pot and add just enough water to barely cover the apples. Cover the pot and simmer on very low heat until the apples are fully cooked. Stir every twenty-minutes. When the mixture looks like runny applesauce it is done. Place a strainer or colander over another clean pot. Place a clean cloth inside the strainer. Pour the hot applesauce mixture into the cloth covered strainer so it can drip through into the large pot underneath. It will take several hours for the mixture to drain through the clean cloth. The slimy thick liquid in the pot is the fruit pectin. Refrigerate or freeze it until it is needed in a recipe.

Self-Rising Flour

 1 cup flour   1/2 tsp. salt                                      1/2 tbsp. baking powder May be used in any recipe that specifies self-rising flour.

Homemade Bisquick Mix

3 cups flour    1/2 cup shortening     1 tbsp. baking powder 4 tsp. granulated sugar  1 tsp. salt Mix everything together and use in any recipe that requires Bisquick Ready Mix.


Homemade Sweetened Condensed Milk

1 cup instant nonfat dry milk        1/3 cup boiling water, 2/3 cup granulated sugar             1/4 cup butter, melted (optional)

Homemade Sour Cream

1 cup instant nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water 1 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice. Add the dry milk to the warm water in a bowl and stir until completely dissolved. Add the vinegar a few drops at a time and continue stirring. Place in the refrigerator for six-hours and the mixture will thicken.

Electrolyte Beverage

1 quart water, 1/2 tsp. baking soda, 1 tsp. Lite salt or regular ,  6 to 10 tsp. granulated sugar or honey  Optional Ingredient: Package of Kool-Aid for color and flavoring.  Mix well. Replaces lost electrolytes due to dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, excessive sweating, etc.).